GREAT ART - The Female Nude

The Female Nude in 19th & 20th Century Art

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - (1780-1867)

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (French pronunciation:  (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy.
A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis Eugène Delacroix.
His exemplars, he once explained, were "the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art ... I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator."
Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time, while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - (1780-1867)

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - (1780-1867)

'THE  BATHER' - (18o8)
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - (1780-1867)

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - (1780-1867)


William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 – August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter.
William Bouguereau was a traditionalist whose realistic genre paintings and mythological themes were modern interpretations of Classical subjects with a heavy emphasis on the female human body.
Although he created an idealized world, his almost photo-realistic style was popular with rich art patrons. He was very famous in his time but today his subject matter and technique receive relatively little attention compared to the popularity of the Impressionists.
Near the end of his life he described his love of his art: “Each day I go to my studio full of joy; in the evening when obliged to stop because of darkness I can scarcely wait for the next morning to come…if I cannot give myself to my dear painting I am miserable”.
He painted eight hundred and twenty-six paintings.
In the spring of 1905, Bouguereau's house and studio in Paris were robbed.
On August 19, 1905, Bouguereau died in La Rochelle at the age of 79 from heart disease.

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

'THE BATHER' - 1879
William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

'BIBLIS' - 1884
William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)

Jean-Léon Gérôme - (1824 - 1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme (11 May 1824 – 10 January 1904) was a French painter and sculptor in the style now known as Academicism.
The range of his oeuvre included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism, portraits and other subjects, bringing the Academic painting tradition to an artistic climax.
Jean-Léon Gérôme was born at Vesoul (Haute-Saône).
He went to Paris in 1840 where he studied under Paul Delaroche, whom he accompanied to Italy (1843–1844).He visited Florence, Rome, the Vatican and Pompeii.
In 1852 Gérôme received a commission by Alfred Emilien Comte de Nieuwerkerke, Surintendant des Beaux-Arts to the court of Napoleon III, for the painting of a large historical canvas, the Age of Augustus.
Thanks to a considerable down payment, he was able to travel in 1853 to Constantinople, together with the actor Edmond Got.
This would be the first of several travels to the East : in 1854 he made another journey to Turkey.
Gérôme was elected a member of the Institut de France in 1865.
Already a knight in the Légion d'honneur, he was promoted to an officer in 1867.
In 1869 he was elected an honorary member of the British Royal Academy.
His fame had become such that he was invited, along with the most eminent French artists, to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
Jean-Léon Gérôme died in his atelier on 10 January 1904. He was found in front of a portrait of Rembrandt and close to his own painting "The Truth". At his own request, he was given a simple burial service without flowers. But the Requiem Mass given in his memory was attended by a former president of the Republic, most prominent politicians, and many painters and writers. He was buried in the Montmartre Cemetery.

Jean-Léon Gérôme - (1824 - 1904)

Luis Ricardo Falero - (1851 - 1896)

Luis Ricardo Falero (1851 – December 7, 1896) was a Spanish painter. He specialized in female nudes and mythological and fantasy settings.
Most of his paintings contained at least one female nude or topless nude.
His most common medium was oil on canvas.
Falero was born in Toledo and originally pursued a career in the Spanish Navy, but gave it up to his parent's bitter disappointment. He walked all the way to Paris, where he studied art, chemistry and mechanical engineering. The experiments that he had to conduct in the latter two were so dangerous, however, that he decided to focus on painting alone.
After Paris, he studied in London, where he eventually settled.
Falero had a particular interest in astronomy and incorporated celestial constellations into many of his works, such as "The Marriage of a Comet" and "Twin Stars". His interest and knowledge of astronomy also led him to illustrate the works of Camille Flammarion.
Falero died at University College Hospital, London, at the age of 45.

Luis Ricardo Falero - (1851 - 1896)

Luis Ricardo Falero - (1851 - 1896)

Luis Ricardo Falero - (1851 - 1896)

Jules Elie Delaunay

Lord Frederic Leighton

Herbert James Draper -  (1863 – 1920)

Herbert James Draper (1863 – 22 September 1920) was an English Classicist painter whose career began in the Victorian era and extended through the first two decades of the 20th century.
Born in London, the son of a jeweler named Henry Draper and his wife Emma, he was educated at Bruce Castle school in Tottenham and then went on to study art at the Royal Academy.
He undertook several educational trips to Rome and Paris between 1888 and 1892, having won the Royal Academy Gold Medal and Traveling Studentship in 1889. In the 1890s he worked also as an illustrator, settling in London. In 1891 he married his wife Ida (née Williams), with whom he had a daughter, Yvonne.
He died at the age of 56, at his home on Abbey Road.
1894 was the beginning of Draper's most productive period. He focused mainly on mythological themes from ancient Greece. His painting "The Lament For Icarus" from 1898 won the gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 and was later bought for the Tate Gallery by the Chantrey Trustees.
In later years as the public tastes changed and mythological scenes became less popular he concentrated more on portraits.
During his lifetime Draper was quite famous and a well known portrait painter.
In his last years his popularity faded, though there has recently been a revival of interest in his work on the art market.

Herbert James Draper -  (1863 – 1920)

Herbert James Draper -  (1863 – 1920)

Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

'THE FOAM SPRITE' - (1895)
Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

The kelpie is a supernatural water horse from Celtic folklore that is believed to haunt the rivers and lochs of Scotland and Ireland; the name may be from Scottish Gaelic cailpeach or colpach "heifer, colt".
The horse's appearance is strong, powerful, and breathtaking.
Its hide was supposed to be black (though in some stories it was white), and will appear to be a lost pony, but can be identified by its constantly dripping mane.
Its skin is like that of a seal, smooth but is as cold as death when touched.
Water horses are known to transform into beautiful women to lure men into their traps, and it is this transformation that Draper depicts in his painting of the kelpei.

Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

In Greek mythology, the Naiads or Naiades (from the Greek "to flow," and "running water") were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks.
They are distinct from river gods, who embodied rivers, and the very ancient spirits that inhabited the still waters of marshes, ponds and lagoon-lakes, such as pre-Mycenaean Lerna in the Argolid.
Naiads were associated with fresh water, as the Oceanids were with saltwater and the Nereids specifically with the Mediterranean, but because the Greeks thought of the world's waters as all one system, which percolated in from the sea in deep cavernous spaces within the earth, there was some overlap.
Arethusa, the nymph of a spring, could make her way through subterranean flows from the Peloponnesus, to surface on the island of Sicily.

Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

The essence of a naiad was bound to her spring, so if a naiad's body of water dried, she died.
They were often the object of archaic local cults, worshipped as essential to humans. Boys and girls at coming-of-age ceremonies dedicated their childish locks to the local naiad of the spring. In places like Lerna their waters' ritual cleansings were credited with magical medical properties. Animals were ritually drowned there. Oracles might be situated by ancient springs.
Naiads could be dangerous: Hylas of the Argo's crew was lost when he was taken by naiads fascinated by his beauty (see illustration). The naiads were also known to exhibit jealous tendencies. Theocritus's story of naiad jealousy was that of a shepherd, Daphnis, who was the lover of Nomia; Daphnis had on several occasions been unfaithful to Nomia and as revenge she permanently blinded him. Salmacis forced the youth Hermaphroditus into a carnal embrace and, when he sought to get away, fused with him.
The Naiads were either daughters of Poseidon or various Oceanids, but a genealogy for such ancient, ageless creatures is easily overstated. 

Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)

John William Godward - (1861-1922)

John William Godward (9 August 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Pre-Raphaelite / Neo-Classicist era.
He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema but his style of painting fell out of favour with the arrival of painters likePicasso.
He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his suicide note that "the world was not big enough" for him and a Picasso.
His already estranged family, who had disapproved of him becoming an artist, were ashamed of his suicide and burned his papers.
No photographs of Godward are known to survive.

'A  PRIESTESS'  - 1893
John William Godward - (1861-1922)

John William Godward - (1861-1922)

John William Godward - (1861-1922)

John William Godward - (1861-1922)

Marion Collier - Portrait of John Collier - circa 1882-1883

The Honourable John Maler Collier OBE RP ROI (27 January 1850 – 11 April 1934), called 'Jack' by his family and friends, was a leading English artist, and an author.
He painted in the Pre-Raphaelite style, and was one of the most prominent portrait painters of his generation.
Both his marriages were to daughters of Thomas Henry Huxley.
He studied painting at the Munich Academy where he enrolled on 14 April 1875 (Register: 3145) at the age of 25.

John Collier (1850-1934)

John Collier (1850-1934)

Evelyn De Morgan (1855 – 1919)

She was born Evelyn Pickering.
Her parents were of upper middle class. Her father was Percival Pickering QC, the Recorder of Pontefract. Her mother was Anna Maria Wilhelmina Spencer Stanhope, the sister of the artist John Roddam Spencer Stanhope and a descendant of Coke of Norfolk who was an Earl of Leicester.
Evelyn was educated at home and started drawing lessons when she was 15. On the morning of her seventeenth birthday, Evelyn recorded in her diary, "Art is eternal, but life is short..." "I will make up for it now, I have not a moment to lose." She went on to persuade her parents to let her go to art school. At first they discouraged it, but in 1873 she was enrolled at the Slade School of Art.
Her uncle, John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, was a great influence to her works. Evelyn often visited him in Florence where he lived. This also enabled her to study the great artists of the Renaissance; she was particularly fond of the works of Botticelli. This influenced her to move away from the classical subjects favoured by the Slade school and to make her own style.
In 1887, she married the ceramicist William De Morgan. They lived together in London until he died in 1917. She died two years later on 2 May 1919 in London and was buried in Brookwood Cemetery, near Woking, Surrey.

'STANDING FEMALE NUDE'  - circa 1835-40
William Etty - (1787-1849)

William Etty (York 10 March 1787 – 13 November 1849) was an English painter, best known for his paintings of nudes.
His works are exhibited extensively in major British galleries. On his return to England in 1824, his "Pandora Crowned by the Seasons" was much applauded, and he was made a member of the Royal Academy in 1828. From this time he was very successful and attained a good competence. He resided in London until 1848, but on account of failing health he retired to York, where he died.

John Collier (1850-1934)

Jehanne Paris Branneh (French - 19th Century)

Jules Joseph Lefevre

Julius LeBlanc Stewart


Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat (1833 – 922 )

'LA TUMBA DEL POETA'  -  (The poet's tomb) -1900
Saenz Pedro Saenz (1863-1927)

Saenz Pedro Saenz (1863-1927) was a pre-Raphaelite Spanish painter associated with the Malaga school of painting.  He was a disciple of Bernardo Ferrandiz, and he studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando (Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando), which is a museum and gallery located on the Calle de Alcalá in the heart of Madrid, Spain.
Some of Saenz’s works can be seen at the Museum of Fine Arts (The Museo de Málaga), Andalusia, Spain.

Arantzazu Martinez

An academic painter from Vitoria, Spain - she attended the Fine Arts University of the Basque Country and graduated in 2000.
Unable to find any classical art training, she moved to New York.
There she enrolled in the New York Academy of Figurative Art (NYAA) MFA program and graduated in 2002.

Arantzazu Martinez

'BACANTE DURMIEDO' - ( c. 1850)
Károly Brocky - (1808 - 1855)

Károly Brocky - born at Banat, in Hungary, in 1808, was the son of a hairdresser, who died whilst his son was still young.
To gain a living the youth joined a body of strolling actors.
After passing through many vicissitudes, he was at length placed in a free drawing school at Vienna, whence he went to Paris, where he studied at the Louvre.
When about thirty years of age he visited London, where he took up his abode.
His first contribution to the Royal Academy was in 1839, and from that time he exhibited portraits, ideal subjects, and miniatures on ivory somewhat frequently; amongst others a 'Nymph ' (in oil) in 1850, and 'Spring,' 'Summer,' 'Autumn,' and 'Winter' in 1852.
He died in 1855. 

Luc Olivier Merson (1846 – 1920)

 'DE LENTE' - 1914

Émile-René Ménard (1861 - 1930)

Émile-René Ménard (1861 - 1930) was a French painter born in Paris.
From early childhood he was immersed in an artistic environment: Corot, Millet and the Barbizon painters frequented his family home, familiarizing him thus with both landscape and antique subjects.
Ménard studied at the Academy Jullian from 1880 after having been a student of Baudry, Bouguereau, and Henri Lehmann.
He participated in the Salon of the Secession in Munich, and the Salon de la Libre Esthétique in Brussels during 1897.
Several personal exhibitions were also devoted to him at the Georges Small Gallery.
In 1921 he exhibited in the Twelfth Salon along with Henri Martin and Edmond Aman-Jean.
Galleries in Buffalo, New York and Boston, Massachusetts exposed Menard and his art to the United States, however, the numerous commissions that Ménard received from the French government crowned his career; for example, the cycle for the Hautes Etudes à la Sorbonne, the Faculté de Droit, and the fresco Atoms for the Chemistry institute, and finally the Caise des Dépôts in Marseilles.
Ménard's art allies a rigorous, clear classicism with a diffuse and dreamlike brushwork.
In 1894, Victor Shoe wrote of Menard in l' Art et la Vie (Art and Life): "visions of a pacified, bathed nature, of dawn and of twilight, where the soul seems to immerse itself in the innocence of daybreak, and breathe the divine anointment that comes with the dawn."

Luc-Olivier Merson - (1846-1920)

Luc-Olivier Merson (21 May 1846 – 13 November 1920) was a French academic painter and illustrator also known for his postage stamp and currency designs.
Born Nicolas Luc-Olivier Merson in Paris, France, he grew up in an artistic household, the son of Charles-Olivier Merson, a painter and art critic. He studied under Gustave Chassevent at the École de Dessin and then Isidore Pils at the École des Beaux-Arts. Merson had his first work exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1866 and three years later was awarded the Prix de Rome. During the five years spent working in Italy, he concentrated on religious and historical subjects for his art.
Back in France, in 1875 he won the first-prize medal at the exhibition by the Société des artistes français. "Nôtre-Dame de Paris," one of Merson's best known paintings, was created in 1881 as a result of the huge popularity of the Victor Hugo novel of the same name.
With its mystical Gothic imagery, its style reflects the influence of the then evolving Symbolist movement.
Merson did major decorative commissions for such institutions as the Palais de Justice, the Louis Pasteur Museum, and the mosaic in the chancel vault in the Basilica of the Sacré Cœur.
He also did the artwork for stained glass windows, an example of which can be found in the Church of the Holy Trinity Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
His profile was raised considerably after being awarded a gold medal for his painting at the 1889 Exposition Universelle, and in 1892 he was elected to the Académie des beaux-arts.

' OLYMPIA' - 1863
Édouard Manet -  (1832 - 1883)

Olympia is an oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet. Painted in 1863, it measures 130.5 by 190 centimetres (51 x 74.8 in).
The nation of France acquired the painting in 1890 with a public subscription organized by Claude Monet. It is now in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Édouard Manet (French pronunciation: [edwa? man?]; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. One of the first 19th-century artists to approach modern-life subjects, he was a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism.

His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, engendered great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art.

(Female Nude)
Anders Leonard Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920)

Anders Leonard Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was one of Sweden’s foremost artists who obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and printmaker in etching.
Zorn was born in Yvraden, a hamlet in the village of Utmeland in the parish of Mora, Dalarna, and was raised on his grandparents' farm in Yvraden.
He studied at the age of twelve in the school at Mora Strand before progressing during the autumn of 1872 to a secondary grammar school in Enköping.
From 1875–1880 Zorn studied at Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in Stockholm, Sweden.
He traveled extensively to London, Paris, the Balkans, Spain, Italy and the United States, becoming an international success as one of the most acclaimed painters of his era.
While his early works were often brilliant, luminous watercolors, by 1887 he had switched firmly to oils. Zorn painted portraits, scenes depicting rustic life and customs.
Zorn is also famous for his nude paintings and realistic depictions of water.
It was primarily his skill as a portrait painter that gained Zorn international acclaim based principally upon his incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model.
His subjects included three American Presidents, one of whom was Grover Cleveland in 1899.
At 29, he was madeChevalier of the Légion d'honneur at the Exposition Universelle 1889 Paris World Fair.

Julius Schmid (1854-1935) - Die Jugen

Alexander Rothaug (1870 - 1946)

Alexander Rothaug (1870 Vienna - 1946 Vienna) was a very well known Austrian painter, stage designer, illustrator and graphic artist who was active during the late 19th - early 20th century.
In 1885-1892 he studied at the Vienna Academy and later in Munich.
Rothaug began exhibiting around the year 1900 in Munich where he worked for a few years as an illustrator of the magazine "Fliegende Blaetter".
In ca. 1910 he moved back to Vienna.
Rothaug was strongly influenced by the works of Franz von Stuck.

'WONDERS of the SEA'

This painting by Frank O Salisbury is of his twin daughters, Monica and Sylvia.

There is some debate as to its date, but the original was almost definitely 1909; bear in mind that Salisbury often duplicated successful portraits at a later date.
The original was exhibited at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in London in 1912.

Francis ("Frank") Owen Salisbury (18 December 1874 – 31 August 1962) was an English artist who specialised in portraits, large canvases of historical and ceremonial events, stained glass and book illustration.
In his day he made a fortune on both sides of the Atlantic and was known as “Britain’s Painter Laureate”.
His art was steadfastly conservative, and he was a vitriolic critic of Modern Art – particularly of his contemporaries Picasso, Chagall and Mondrian.
He then won a scholarship to the Royal Academy Schools which he attended for five years, and where he won two silver medals and two scholarships, including the 'Landseer Scholarship' which funded his to travel to Italy in 1896.
In due course he would have seventy exhibits accepted for the annual Royal Academy Summer Exhibitions, from 1899 until 1943.
Twenty-five members of the Royal House of Windsor sat for Salisbury and he was the first artist to paint HM Queen Elizabeth II.
Salisbury’s great forte was in his painting of over forty large canvases of historical and national events, a field in which he was virtually unchallenged until 1951.
The two most significant of these are The Heart of Empire – the Jubilee Thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral 1935 and The Coronation of their Royal Majesties King George VI and Queen Elizabeth 1937.
It was Salisbury who was required, by Royal Command, to paint two large images of 'The Burial of the Unknown Warrior' for the first Remembrance Day.

Leopold Schmutzler 

Karl Truppe

Karl Truppe

Adolf Ziegler

Ivo  Saliger - 1894 - 1987

Ivo Saliger was known both for his original etchings and paintings.
He moved to Vienna in 1908 and studied painting and etching techniques at the Academy of Vienna, under some of Austria’s finest artists such as Rudolf Jettmar, Ludwig Michalek and Ferdinand Schmutzer.
Saliger completed his studies at the Academie Moderne, in Paris.
He returned to Vienna in 1920 to assume the post of professor of art at the Academy.
During the 1920’s and 1930’s, Ivo Saliger developed strong Art Deco elements within his art.
When German soldiers marched into Austria, Saliger, like so many other artists, began to paint images in support of the Third Reich.
His paintings were frequently exhibited at the ‘Great German Art Exhibition’ held annually in Munich between 1937 and 1944.
After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Saliger continued to paint until his death in 1987.

Ivo  Saliger

(Nude Study - Artist Unknown)

click here for more information about Eva Braun - 
her biography and rare photos

Salvador Dali

Howard David Johnson - (born 2 September 1954)

Howard David Johnson (born 2 September 1954) is an American photorealist Illustrator and Painter.
Though he paints in a realistic vein, contemporary artist Howard David Johnson creates a world of folklore and mythical characters.
Born in Munich, Germany, and the son of an American Air Force officer, he was highly influenced by the art and culture that he was exposed to while traveling in the Mediterranean and Central Europe.
His paintings of religious, mythical and historical subjects reflect his passion for the vivid imagery and preponderance of detail in Pre-Raphaelite art.


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