GREAT ART - Great Architecture




Now the strange thing about ancient Egyptian architecture is that it seemed to appear, fully formed, with no developmental process, as if from nowhere - and the earliest, and most beautiful examples are to be found a the pyramid field of Saquara, in Northern Egypt, close to the Delta.




SAQUARA

Djoser was the first or second king of the 3rd Dynasty (ca. 2667 to 2648 BC) of the Egyptian Old Kingdom (ca. 2686 to 2125 BC).
He is believed to have ruled for 19 years or, if the 19 years were biennial taxation years, 38 years.
He reigned long enough to allow the grandiose plan for his pyramid to be realized in his lifetime.
Djoser is best known for his innovative tomb, which dominates the Saqqara landscape.
Djoser’s step pyramid is astounding in its departure from previous architecture.
It sets several important precedents, perhaps the most important of which is its status as the first monumental structure made of stone.
The social implications of such a large and carefully sculpted stone structure are staggering.
The process of building such a structure would be far more labor intensive than previous monuments of mud-brick. This suggests that the state, and therefore the royal government had a new level of control of resources, both material and human.
Also, from this point on, kings of the Old Kingdom are buried in the North, rather than at Abydos. Furthermore, although the plan of Djoser’s pyramid complex is different than later complexes, many elements persist and the step pyramid sets the stage for later pyramids of the 4th, 5th, and 6th Dynasties, including the great pyramids at Giza.
Finally, another intriguing first is the identification of the architect Imhotep, who is credited with the design and construction of the complex.




SAQUARA - EGYPT





SAQUARA - EGYPT



Pyramids  of  Gizeh
Cairo - Egypt

A pyramid (from Greek πυραμίς  – pyramis) is a structure where the outer surfaces are triangular and converge at a point.
A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above: this distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures.
For thousands of years, the largest structures on earth were pyramids: first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis, and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both of Egypt, the latter the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining.
Khufu’s Pyramid is built entirely of limestone, and is considered an architectural masterpiece.
It contains around 1,300,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tons to 15 tons and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres.
Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees.
The original height of the Pyramid was 146.5 m (488 ft).




Temple  of  Ammon - Ἄμμων
Karnak - Luxor - Egypt

The Karnak Temple Complex—usually called Karnak—comprises a vast conglomeration of ruined temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings, notably the Great Temple of Amen and a massive structure begun by Pharaoh Ramses II (ca. 1391–1351 BC).
An ancient sacred lake is part of the site as well.
It is located near Luxor, some 500 km south of Cairo, in Egypt.
The area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places") and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head.
It is part of the monumental city of Thebes.
The Karnak complex takes its name from the nearby, and partly surrounded, modern village of el-Karnak, some 2.5 km north of Luxor.




Hadrian's Kiosk
Philae - Aswan - Egypt




The  Acropolis
Athens - Greece

The Acropolis of Athens or Citadel of Athens is the best known acropolis in the world.
Although there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as The Acropolis without qualification.
The Acropolis is a flat-topped rock that rises 150 m (490 ft) above sea level in the city of Athens, with a surface area of about 3 hectares. It was also known as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Cecrops, the first Athenian king.
Most of the major temples were rebuilt under the leadership of Pericles during the Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC).
Phidias, a great Athenian sculptor, and Ictinus and Callicrates, two famous architects, were responsible for the reconstruction.
After winning at Eurymedon in 468 BC, Cimon and Themistocles ordered the reconstruction of southern and northern walls, and Pericles entrusted the building of the Parthenon to Ictinus and Callicrates.
In 437 BC Mnesicles started building the Propylaea, monumental gates with columns of Pentelic marble, partly built upon the old propylaea of Pisistratus. These colonnades were almost finished in 432 BC and had two wings, the northern one serving as picture gallery. At the same time, south of the propylaea, building of the small Ionic Temple of Athena Nike commenced.
After an interruption caused by the Peloponnesian War, the temple was finished in the time of Nicias' peace, between 421 BC and 415 BC.
During the same period the building of the Erechtheum, a combination of sacred precincts including the temples of Athena Polias, Poseidon, Erechtheus, Cecrops, Herse, Pandrosos and Aglauros, with its so-called the Kore Porch (or Caryatids' balcony), was begun.




Παρθενών - The  Parthenon
Athens - Greece

The Parthenon is a temple in the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their protector.
Its construction began in 447 BC and was completed in 438 BC, although decorations of the Parthenon continued until 432 BC.
It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order.
Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art.
The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments.
The Parthenon, an octostyle, peripteral Doric temple with Ionic architectural features, housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by Phidias and dedicated in 439 or 438 BC.
It is conjectured that the decorative stonework was originally highly coloured.
Measured at the stylobate, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 metres by 30.9 metres (228.0 x 101.4 ft). The cella was 29.8 metres long by 19.2 metres wide (97.8 x 63.0 ft), with internal colonnades in two tiers, structurally necessary to support the roof.
On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres (34.1 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. The Parthenon had 46 outer pillars and 23 inner pillars in total.
The stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 60 millimetres (2.36 in) on the east and west ends, and of 110 millimetres (4.33 in) on the sides.
The roof was covered with large overlapping marble tiles known as imbrices and tegulae.






Παρθενών - The  Parthenon
Athens - Greece


_________________________________________



Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and the architecture of Italian Andrea Palladio.
In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.

High neoclassicism was an international movement. Though neoclassical architecture employs the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture, it tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes.
Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are flatter; sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Its clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves.
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, the works of Leo von Klenze, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, DC in the United States. 





Glyptothek
München
Leo von Klenze - 1816 -1830

The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection ofGreek and Roman sculptures, (hence γλυπτο- glypto- "sculpture", from the Greek verb γλύφειν glyphein "to carve").
It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830.
Today the museum is a part of the Kunstareal.





Propyläen
München
 Leo von Klenze - 1862

The building constructed in Doric order was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and evokes the monumental entrance of the Propylaea for the Athenian Acropolis.
The gate was created as a memorial for the accession to the throne of Otto of Greece, a son of the principal King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
The reliefs and sculptures celebrating the Bavarian prince and the Greek War of Independence were created by Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler.





Ruhmeshalle
München 
 Leo von Klenze




Regensburg Walhalla
 Leo von Klenze 1830 - 1842

The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history — politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue".
The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany.
The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology.
It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I.
Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze.
The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history.




Regensburg Walhalla
Interior




Regensburg Walhalla
Colonade




Altes Museum
Karl Friedrich Schinkel - (1781 - 1841)

The Altes Museum  was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family's art collection.
The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel's career.
Until 1845, it was called the Königliches Museum (Royal Museum).
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781, Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg – 9 October 1841, Berlin, Province of Brandenburg) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neo-gothic buildings.




Monticello
Thomas Jefferson

Monticello is a National Historic Landmark just outside Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.
It was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia; it is also, at his direction, the site of Jefferson's burial place.
The house, which Jefferson designed, was based on the neoclassical principles described in the books of the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.
It is situated on the summit of an 850-foot (260 m)-high peak in the Southwest Mountains south of the Rivanna Gap. Its name comes from the Italian "little mountain."




Washington Capitol
Washington DC

The original design for the capitol was by Thornton, and was later modified by Benjamin Henry Latrobe and then Charles Bulfinch.
The current dome and the House and Senate wings were designed by Thomas U. Walter and August Schoenborn, a German immigrant, and were completed under the supervision of Edward Clark.




Column Bases - Capitol Hill
Washington DC




 Vittorio Emanuele II Memorial
Roma
Giuseppe Sacconi - 1885

The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II) or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) or "Il Vittoriano" is a monument to honour Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy.
It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill.
The monument was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi in 1885; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy, such as Angelo Zanelli.
It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1935.
The monument, "chopped with terrible brutality into the immensely complicated fabric of the hill", is built of pure white marble from Botticino, Brescia, and features majestic stairways, tall Corinthian columns, fountains, a huge equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas.
The structure is 135 m (443 ft) wide and 70 m (230 ft) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266 ft).



 Vittorio Emanuele II Memorial
Roma
Giuseppe Sacconi - 1885




 Vittorio Emanuele II Memorial
Roma




Bank of England
Sir John Soane, RA

Sir John Soane, RA (10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skilful use of light sources.
The influence of his work, coming at the end of the Georgian era, was swamped by the revival styles of the 19th century.
It was not until the late 19th century that the influence of Sir John's architecture was widely felt. His best-known work was the Bank of England, a building which had widespread effect on commercial architecture.




British Museum
Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867)

Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867) was an English architect, one of the leaders of Greek Revival architecture his best known building in that style is the British Museum, though he also designed using other architectural styles.
The British Museum is Smirke's largest and best known building. In 1820 in his role as architect to the Office of Works Smirke was invited to redesign the Museum, although the complete design dates from 1823, and was for a building surrounding a large central courtyard with a grand south front, given the limited funds the work was divided into phases.
Built of brick the visible facades are cased in Portland stone.
The first part constructed was the east wing the King's Library, started in 1823 this was completed in 1828. The north section of the west wing the Egyptian Galleries followed 1825-34. The north wing housing the library and reading rooms was built 1833-38.
The west wing and south front was built 1842-46.
The main feature of the south front is the great colonnade of forty-four Greek Ionic columns. The columns are forty-five feet high and five feet in diameter, the column capitals are loosely based on the temple of Athena Polias at Priene and the column bases are based on the temple of Dionysus at Teos. At the centre of the colonnade is theoctastyle portico, this is two columns deep, the colonnade continues for three more columns before embracing the two wings to either side.
The major surviving interiors are the entrance hall with the Great Stair to rising to the west, it takes the form of an Imperial staircase, the impressive King's Library built to house 65,000 books.
The only major interior to survive in the north wing is the Arched Room at the west end. The Egyptian Gallery matches the King's Library but is far plainer in decoration.




British Museum
Main Staircase
Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867)




British Museum
Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867)



Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death.
In 1754 he left for Rome, spending nearly five years on the continent studying architecture under Charles-Louis Clérisseau and Giovanni Battista Piranesi. On his return to Britain he established a practice in London, where he was joined by his younger brother James.
Here he developed the "Adam Style", and his theory of "movement" in architecture, based on his studies of antiquity and became one of the most successful and fashionable architects in the country.
Adam held the post of Architect of the Kings Works from 1761 to 1769.
Robert Adam was leader of the first phase of the classical revival in England and Scotland from around 1760 until his death.
He influenced the development of Western architecture, both in Europe and in North America.
Adam was not content with providing houses for his clients but very ready to design the fittings and accessories as well.



Robert Adam - Osterly House
Eagle Sculpture 




Robert Adam - Osterly House
Portico



Robert Adam - Osterly House
Portica Ceiling




Entrance Hall - Osterly House
Robert Adam 
c 1763





Main Staircase - Osterly House
Robert Adam 
c 1763




State Bedroom - Osterly House
Robert Adam 
c 1763




The Etruscan Room - Osterly House
Robert Adam c 1763




Adam Ceiling
painted by Antonio Zucchi - 1771




Ceiling - Headfort House 
Robert Adam






Ceiling Design - Derby House
Robert Adam




 Dining Room at Kedleston Hall 
Robert Adam





قصر عابدين‎
The Abdeen Palace - Cairo Egypt


Construction started in 1863 and continued for 10 years and the palace was officially inaugurated in 1874.
Erected on an area of 24 feddans, the palace was designed by the French architect Rousseau along with a large number of Egyptian, Italian, French and Turkish decorators. However, the palace’s garden was added in 1921 by Sultan Fuad I on an area of 20 feddans.
The cost of building the palace reached 700,000 Egyptian pounds in addition to 2 million pounds for its furnishing. More money was also spent on the palace’s alteration, preservation and maintenance by consecutive rulers. The palace includes 500 rooms.




Victoria Memorial
Calcutta India

The Victoria Memorial, officially the Victoria Memorial Hall, is a memorial building dedicated to Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom and Empress of India.
The memorial was designed by Sir William Emerson using Indo-Saracenic style, incorporating Mughal elements in the structure. Lord Redesdale and Sir David Prain designed the gardens.
The foundation stone of the memorial was laid down in the year 1906.
The monument was intended to serve as a tribute to the success of the British Empire in India.
Architect Sir William Emerson laid down the actual plan of the memorial.
The design of the structure represents a fusion of British and Mughal architecture.
White Makrana marbles were used in the construction of Victoria Memorial Hall and the building was inaugurated in the year 1921.
The massive hall is 338 feet (103 m) by 228 feet (69 m) and rises to a height of 184 feet (56 m).




Victoria Memorial
Calcutta India


Nehru Memorial Museum and Library 
Delhi - India

Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, famously known as Teen Murti Bhawan, after the 3 statues which were established in 1922 in honor of the three Indian princely states ,namely; Jodhpur, Hyderabad & Mysore after there contribution in World War I by serving in present day Gaza Strip, Israel, Palestine, was designed by the Robert Tor Russel who also designed Connaught Place and few parts of Janpath.
Spread in 30 acres it's construction started in 1929 and took around one year to completion. It is a masterpiece of British and French architecture..primarily woodwork.
It was initially knows as Flagstaff House, and it was used by British Forces as the residence of the Commander-in-Chief.
After Independence, the house was taken over as the residence of Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), 1st Prime Minister of India.



Viceregal Palace
New Delhi - India


During the Delhi Durbar year of 1911, it was decided that the capital of India would be relocated from Calcutta to Delhi.
This was announced on December 12 by King George V.
As the plan for New Delhi was developed, the Governor-General's residence was given an enormous scale and prominent position.
The British architect Edwin Landseer Lutyens, a major member of the city-planning process, was given the primary architectural responsibility.
The palace developed very similarly to the original sketches which Lutyens sent Herbert Baker from Simla on June 14, 1912.
Lutyens' design is grandly classical overall, with colours and details inspired by Indian architecture.




Viceregal Palace - Durbar Hall & Viceregal Throne
New Delhi - India








Viceregal Palace - Durbar Hall & Viceregal Throne
New Delhi - India



Viceregal Palace
New Delhi - India




Viceregal Palace
New Delhi - India





All India War Memorial
New Delhi - India

Situated in the heart of New Delhi, the All India War Memorial was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.
It is a prominent landmark in Delhi and commemorates the 90,000 soldiers of the British Indian Army who lost their lives while fighting for the British Indian Empire, or more correctly the British Raj in World War I and theThird Anglo-Afghan War. It is composed of red sand stone and granite.



Thomas Jefferson Memorial
Washington  DC


The Jefferson Memorial was designed by John Russell Pope.
It was built by Philadelphia contractor John McShain. Construction began in 1939, the building was completed in 1943, and the bronze statue of Jefferson was added in 1947.
Composed of circular marble steps, a portico, a circular colonnade of Ionic order columns, and a shallow dome, the building is open to the elements.
Pope made references to the Roman Pantheon and Jefferson's own design for the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. It is situated in West Potomac Park, on the shore of the Tidal Basin of the Potomac River. 




Thomas Jefferson Memorial
Washington  DC



The Arlington Memorial Amphitheatre
Colonade
Arlington National Cemetery

The Arlington Memorial Amphitheatre at Arlington National Cemetery, near the center of the Cemetery, is the home of the Tomb of the Unknowns where Unknown American Service members from World War I, World War II, and Korea are interred.
This site has also hosted the state funerals of many famous Americans, such as General of the Armies John J. "Black Jack" Pershing, General of the Air Force Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, the Unknown Soldiers, and five victims of the September 11 attacks, as well as annual Memorial Day and Veterans Dayceremonies. Every American President of the 20th and 21st centuries has presided over holiday gatherings at this site.
Judge Ivory Kimball worked during several sessions of Congress as the department head of the Grand Army of the Republic in the District to get a bill through Congress to build the Amphitheatre.
The bill finally went through in President William Howard Taft's administration, when Congress authorized its construction March 4, 1913.
Judge Kimball participated in the ground-breaking ceremony, March 1, 1915, but did not live to see his dream completed. President Woodrow Wilson placed its cornerstone Oct. 15, 1915.
A colonnade of arched openings with attached Doric columns on the piers completely encloses the amphitheater.
The architect was Thomas Hastings of the New York-based firm of Carrère and Hastings.
The Amphitheater was dedicated on May 15, 1920.[1]
The white marble is from the Danby quarries of Vermont.




The Arlington Memorial Amphitheatre
Arlington National Cemetery




The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Arlington National Cemetery

The Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery is also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
It stands on top of a hill overlooking Washington, D.C.
One of the more popular sites at the Cemetery, the tomb is made from Yule marble quarried in Colorado.
It consists of seven pieces, with a total weight of 79 short tons (72 metric tons). The tomb was completed and opened to the public April 9, 1932, at a cost of $48,000.





Commonwealth Airforce Memorial - Runneymeade
Sir Edwin Maufe

The Air Forces Memorial, or Runnymede Memorial, near Egham, Surrey, England is a memorial dedicated to some 20,456 men and women from the British Empire who were lost in operations from World War II.
All of those recorded have no known grave anywhere in the world, and many were lost without trace.
The name of each of these airmen and airwomen is engraved into the stone walls of the memorial, according to country and squadron.
The memorial was designed by Sir Edward Maufe with sculpture by Vernon Hill. The engraved glass and painted ceilings were designed by John Hutton, and the poem engraved on the gallery window was written by Paul H Scott.
It was the first post-World War II building to be listed for architectural merit.
The roof of the memorial looks over the River Thames and Runnymede Meadow, where the Magna Carta was sealed by King John in 1215.
Most of north, west, and central London can be seen to the right from the viewpoint; such monuments as the London Eye and the arch of Wembley Stadium are visible on clear days. Windsor Castle and the surrounding area can be seen to the left.





Magna Carta Memorial at Runnymede
Sir Edwin Maufe

Situated in a grassed enclosure on the lower slopes of Cooper's Hill, this memorial is of a domed classical style, containing a pillar of English granite on which is inscribed "To commemorate Magna Carta, symbol of Freedom Under Law".
The memorial was created by the American Bar Associationto a design by Sir Edward Maufe R.A., and was unveiled on 18 July 1957 at a ceremony attended by American and English lawyers.




FÜHRERBAU - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost

The Fuehrerbau, on the Königsplatz in Munich, was built from 1933 to 1937 by the architect Paul Ludwig Troost.
The first plans for the buildings date from the year 1931.
It was completed only three years after the death of Professor Troost by Leonhard Gall.
The building was used as the national administrative centre for the NSDAP.





EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost

The Ehrentempel ("honor temples") were two structures in Munich, designed by Professor Paul Ludwig Troost, and erected by the German Government in 1935, housing the sacrophagi of the sixteen members of the party who had been killed in the failed Beer hall putsch.
The Ehrentempel was made of limestone except for its roof which was made of steel and concrete with etched glass mosaics.
The pedestals of the temples were seventy feet wide.
The columns of the structures each extended twenty-three feet. The combined weight of the sacrophagi was over 2,900 pounds.




EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost



EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost



EHRENTEMPEL AT DUSK - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost



DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
(The House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost



DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
Paul Ludwig Troost

The building was constructed from 1933 to 1937 following plans of architect Paul Ludwig Troost as the Third Reich's first monumental structure.
The museum, called Haus der Deutschen Kunst ("House of German Art"), was opened in July 18, 1937 as a showcase for Germany's finest art.
The inaugural exhibition was the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung ("Great German art exhibition"), which was an edifying contrast to the condemned modern art on display in the concurrent Entartete Kunst exhibition.
On 15 and 16 October 1939, the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung inside the Haus der Deutschen Kunst was complemented by the monumental Tag der Deutschen Kunst celebration of "2,000 years of Germanic culture" where luxuriously draped floats (one of them carrying a 5 meter tall golden Nazi Reichsadler) and thousands of actors in historical costumes paraded down Prinzregentenstraße for hours in the presence of Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley, Reinhard Heydrich, and many other high-ranking Nazis, with minor events taking place in the Englischer Garten nearby.
The 1939 Tag der Deutschen Kunst was documented by a group of hobby cinematographers on 16 mm Kodachrome color movie, the resulting 30-minute film is still pristine today due to Kodachrome's unusual archival properties, and is available in a variety of editions on VHS and DVD, such as Farben 1939 - 'Tag der Deutschen Kunst in München'. (see excerpts below)



'Tag der Deutschen Kunst in München'




DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
Paul Ludwig Troost





REICH ADLER
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MARMORGALERIE - BERLIN
Albert Speer

In late January 1938, Adolf Hitler officially assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery around the corner on Voßstraße, a branch-off of Wilhelmstraße, requesting that the building be completed within a year.
Hitler commented that Bismarck's Old Chancellery was "fit for a soap company" but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. It nevertheless remained his official residence with its recently refurbished representation rooms on the groundfloor and private rooms on the upper floor where Hitler lived in the so called Führerwohnung ("Führer apartment").
Hitler placed the entire northern side of the Voßstraße at Speer's disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls and salons which "will make an impression on people".
Speer was given a blank cheque — Hitler stated that the cost of the project was immaterial — and was instructed that the building be of solid construction and that it be finished by the following January in time for the next New Year diplomatic reception to be held in the new building.
Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock.
In the end it cost over 90 Million Reichsmark, well over one billion dollars today.
In his memoirs, Speer described the impression of the Reichskanzlei on a visitor:
The series of rooms comprising the approach to Hitler's reception gallery were decorated with a rich variety of materials and colours and totalled 220 m (725 ft) in length.
The gallery itself was 145 m (480 ft) long. Hitler's own office was 400 square meters in size.
From the exterior, the chancellery had a stern, authoritarian appearance.
From the Wilhelmplatz, visitors would enter the Chancellery through the Court of Honour (Ehrenhof). The building's main entrance was flanked by two bronze statues by sculptor Arno Breker: "Wehrmacht" and "Partei" ("Armed Forces" and "Party").
Hitler is said to have been greatly impressed by the building and was uncharacteristically effusive with his praise for Speer, lauding the architect as a "genius".
The chancellor's immense study was a particular favourite of the dictator.
The large marble-topped table served as an important part of the Nazi leader's military headquarters, the study being used for military conferences from 1944 on. On the other hand, the Cabinet room was never used for its intended purpose.



NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Ante Room)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Mosaic Hall)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Cabinet Room)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Main Entrance)
Albert Speer





MAIN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer





GARDEN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer




GERMANIA
Albert Speer


Welthauptstadt Germania ("World Capital Germania") refers to the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler's vision for the future of Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Albert Speer, the "first architect of the Third Reich", produced many of the plans for the rebuilt city in his capacity as overseer of the project, only a small portion of which was realized between the years 1937-1943 when construction took place.
Some projects, such as the creation of a great East-West city axis, which included broadening Charlottenburger Chaussee (today Straße des 17. Juni) and placing the Berlin victory column in the center, far away from the Reichstag, where it originally stood, succeeded.
Others, however, such as the creation of the Große Halle (Great Hall), had to be shelved owing to the beginning of war.
A great number of the old buildings in many of the planned construction areas were however demolished before the war and eventually defeat stopped the plans.
The combined name "Welthauptstadt Germania" for the project was coined by Albert Speer in his 1969 memoirs Inside the Third Reich. 





MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG - GERMANIA
Albert Speer


According to the records of Hitler's Table Talk of 8 June 1942 Hitler toyed with the idea of renaming the renewed Berlin into 'Germania', in order to give a Greater Germanic world empire a clear central point:
The term Welthauptstadt (World Capital) was already used by Hitler three months prior on the night between the 11th and 12th of March 1942 in the Wolf's Lair:
"Berlin as the World Capital will only be comparable with Ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Rome! What are London and Paris compared to that!"
—Werner Jochmann: Adolf Hitler. Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941–1944, p. 318. Munich, 1980.
The title 'Welthauptstadt' was chosen because it was felt that Berlin's architecture was at that time too provincial and that there was need to put Berlin on a par with and exceed the quality of other world capitals such as London, Paris and especially Rome.






MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG - GERMANIA
Albert Speer




 GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer

The sketch of the Volkshalle given by Hitler to Speer shows a traditional gabled pronaos supported by ten columns, a shallow rectangular intermediate block and behind it the domed main building.
However, there was little about Speer's elaboration of the sketch that might be termed Doric, except perhaps for the triglyphs in the entablature, supported by the geminated red granite columns with their Egyptian palm-leaf capitals, previously employed by Speer in the portico outside Hitler's study on the garden side of the new Chancellery (see above).




 GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer

Speer's Große Halle was to be the capital's most important and impressive building in terms of its size and symbolism. Visually it was to have been the architectural centrepiece of Berlin as the world capital (Welthauptstadt).
Its dimensions were so large that it would have dwarfed every other structure in Berlin, including those on the north-south axis itself.
The oculus of the building's dome, 46 metres (151 ft) in diameter, would have accommodated the entire rotunda of Hadrian's Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.
The dome of the Volkshalle was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,033 × 1,033 ft) and 74 metres (243 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). 
The resemblance of the Volkshalle to the Pantheon is far more obvious when their interiors are compared.
The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Hitler's tribunal.
From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.
The three concentric tiers of seats enclosing a circular arena 140 metres (460 ft) in diameter owe nothing to the Pantheon but resemble the seating arrangements in Ludwig Ruff's Congress Hall at Nuremberg, which was modeled on the Colosseum.
Other features of the Volkshalle's interior are clearly indebted to Hadrian's Pantheon: the coffered dome, the pillared zone, which here is continuous, except where it flanks the huge niche on the north side.
The second zone in the Pantheon, consisting of blind windows with intervening pilasters, is represented in Speer's building by a zone above the pillars consisting of uniform, oblong shallow recesses.
The coffered dome rests on this zone. 
Hitler's aspirations to world domination and the establishment of his New Order, already evident from architectural and decorative features of the new Chancellery, are even more clearly expressed here.
External symbols suggest that the domed hall was where Hitler as cosmocrator (Herr der Welt) would appear before his Herrenvolk: On top of the dome's lantern was an eagle grasping in its claws not the usual swastika but the globe of the Earth (Erdball).
This combination of eagle and ball was well known in imperial Roman iconography, for example, the restored statue of Claudius holding a ball and eagle in his right hand.
The vast dome, on which it rested, as with Hadrian's Pantheon, symbolically represented the vault of the sky spanning Hitler's world empire.
The globe on the dome's lantern was enhanced and emphasized by two monumental sculptures by Breker, each 15 metres high, which flanked the north façade of the building: at its west end Atlas supporting the heavens, at its east end Tellus supporting the Earth.
Both mythological figures were according to Speer, chosen by Hitler himself.




GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer






ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer



ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer




GERMAN PAVILLION - PARIS
Albert Speer

See also:






The last of the truly great artistic styles, Art Deco  is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s, and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era.
The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture 

The term "art deco" was first used widely in 1966, after an exhibition in Paris, 'Les Années 25' sub-titled Art Deco, celebrating the 1925 'Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes' that was the culmination of style moderne in Paris. At its best, Art Deco represented elegance, glamour, functionality and modernity.
Architectural examples of Art Deco survive in many different locations worldwide, in countries as diverse as China (Shanghai), the UK, Latvia, Spain, Cuba, Mexico, Indonesia, the Philippines, Argentina, Poland, Austria, Germany, Russia, Romania, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, India, Brazil, Colombia and the United States. In New York, the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building and Rockefeller Center are among the largest and best-known examples of the style.



Nebraska State Capitol

In 1922 Bertram G. Goodhue was selected as the winner of the competition to design the State capitol building
His design used the Classical principles of austerity, abstract geometrical form, and hierarchical arrangements of parts, but did not use columns, pediment, or dome, and is a superb example of America Art Deco architecture.
The capitol is often considered the first major expression of what has been termed Goodhue's "freely interpreted classical style."
The cross-axial plan is similar to a traditional Catholic church or cathedral.
The building's four wings radiate from a central domed rotunda, architecturally separating the parts of government.
The unarticulated windows and flat surfaces anticipate modern skyscrapers. It is also the first U.S. state capitol with usable tower space.
The $9,800,449.07 construction costs were secured by a special capitol levy tax. The building was completed during 10 years with supervision by William Lefevre Younkin.



Louisiana State Capitol

In 1930 Huey Long, then Governor of Louisana, contracted New Orleans architectural firm Weiss, Dreyfous and Seiferth to design the building, and expressed interest in a tower.
They took Bertram Goodhue's Art deco style Nebraska State Capitol Building as their model, which was still under construction at the time.
The building includes integrated sculpture by Ulric Ellerhusen, Lee Lawrie, Adolph Alexander Weinman, Corrado Parducci and Lorado Taft, among others, and also contains murals by Jules Guerin.
The building was completed in March 1932 (dedicated May 16, 1932) after 14 months at a cost of $5 million



Hollywood  Bowl  Auditorium

The Hollywood Bowl is a modern amphitheater in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, California, United States that is used primarily for music performances. It has a seating capacity of 17,376.
The Hollywood Bowl is known for its band shell, a distinctive set of concentric arches that graced the site from 1929 through 2003,
In 1929 Allied Architects built the shell that stood until 2003, using a transite skin over a metal frame.
Its clean lines and white, almost-semicircular arches were copied for music shells elsewhere.  The appearance underwent other, purely visual, changes as well, including the addition of a broad outer arch (forming a proscenium) where it had once had only a narrow rim and the reflecting pool in front of the stage that lasted from 1953 till 1972. Sculptor George Stanley designed the Muse Fountain. He had previously done The Oscar statuette.



Gillette  Factory - Great  West Road - Hounslow
Sir Banister Fletcher

King Camp Gillette (January 5, 1855 – July 9, 1932) was an American businessman, popularly known as the inventor of the safety razor, although several models were in existence prior to Gillette's design. Gillette's innovation was the thin, inexpensive, disposable blade of stamped steel.
Gillette is widely credited with inventing the so-called razor and blades business model, where razors are sold cheaply to increase the market for blades, but in fact he did not adopt this model until his competitors did.
The 'Gillette Building' is a grade II listed Art Deco style office and works development, designed by Sir Banister Fletcher, incorporating a high brick tower surmounted by a four-faced neon-illuminated clock. As this tall structure sits on high ground it represents a prominent local landmark and can be seen from afar, day and night. From the early 1930s until the early 21st century this building was the European headquarters of the Gillette Company, of Boston Massachusetts.




Gillette  Factory - Great  West Road - Hounslow
Sir Banister Fletcher

Sir Banister Flight Fletcher (15 February 1866, London – 17 August 1953, London) was an English architect and architectural historian, as was his father, also named Banister Fletcher.
With his father, he co-authored the first edition of A History of Architecture - A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. London: Athlone Press, University of London.
He was architect of the Gillette factory on the Great West Road, in Brentford, Middlesex, of the Great Hall at King's College School, and of Abbess Grange, Leckford, Hampshire.
He was elected president of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) in 1929 (until 1931).



THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE

The 'International Style' (in reality the 'American Style') is a major architectural style that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of so-called 'Modern' architecture.
The term originated from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, 'The International Style', that identified, categorized and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism across the world and its stylistic aspects.
The authors identified three principles: the expression of volume rather than mass, the emphasis on balance rather than preconceived symmetry, and the expulsion of applied ornament.
The aim of Hitchcock and Johnson was to define a style that would encapsulate this modern architecture, doing this by the inclusion of specific architects.
The book was written to record the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932.
All the works in the exhibition were carefully selected, only displaying those that strictly followed these rules.
Previous uses of the term in the same context can be attributed to Walter Gropius in Internationale Architektur, and Ludwig Hilberseimer in Internationale neue Baukunst.



Villa Savoye
Le Corbusier 

Villa Savoye is a modernist villa in Poissy, in the outskirts of Paris, France. It was designed by Swiss architects Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, and built between 1928 and 1931.
A manifesto of Le Corbusier's "five points" of new architecture, the villa is representative of the bases of modern architecture, and is one of the most easily recognizable and renowned examples of the International style.
Originally built as a country retreat on behest of the Savoye family, the house fell into disuse after 1940, and entered a state of disrepair during World War II.
It passed on to be property of the French state in 1958, and after surviving several plans of demolition, it was designated as an official French historical monument in 1965 (a rare occurrence, as Le Corbusier was still living at the time).
It was thoroughly renovated from 1985 to 1997, and under the care of the 'Centre des Monuments Nationaux', the refurbished house is now open to visitors year-round.



Bauhaus - Dessau - Deutschland
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969)

Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as the Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term  Bauhaus, literally "house of construction" stood for "School of Building".
The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar.
In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a 'total' work of art in which all arts, including architecture would eventually be brought together.
The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.
The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.
The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.
The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. 



Bauhaus - Dessau - Deutschland
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969)

Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber.
Gropius married Alma Mahler (1879–1964), widow of Gustav Mahler.
Walter and Alma's daughter, named Manon after Walter's mother, was born in 1916. When Manon died of polio at age eighteen, composer Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto in memory of her (it is inscribed "to the memory of an angel").
Gropius and Alma divorced in 1920. (Alma had by that time established a relationship with Franz Werfel, whom she later married.)
In 1923 Gropius married Ise (Ilse) Frank (d. 1983), and they remained together until his death. They adopted Beate Gropius, also known as Ati.



Barcelona  Pavillion  - Mies  van  der  Rohe


The Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona, Spain. This building was used for the official opening of  the German section of the exhibition. It was an important building in the history of modern architecture, known for its simple form and extravagant materials, such as marble and travertine.
Mies placed Georg Kolbe's Alba ("Dawn") in the small water basin, leaving the larger one all the more empty. The sculpture also ties into the highly reflective materials Mies used—he chose the place where these optical effects would have the strongest impact; the building offers multiple views of Alba.
Because this was planned as an exhibition pavilion, it was intended to exist only temporarily. The building was torn down in early 1930, not even a year after it was completed. However, thanks to black and white photos and original plans, a group of Spanish architects reconstructed the pavilion permanently between 1983 and 1986.




Barcelona Pavillion - Interior
Mies van der Rohe



Barcelona  Pavillion  - Mies  van  der  Rohe




Barcelona Pavillion - Interior
Mies van der Rohe






Barcelona Pavillion - Interior
Mies van der Rohe




Barcelona  Pavillion  - Sculpture  Court  &  Reflecting  Pool
Mies  van  der  Rohe

Mies placed Georg Kolbe's Alba ("Dawn") in the small water basin, leaving the larger one all the more empty. The sculpture also ties into the highly reflective materials Mies used—he chose the place where these optical effects would have the strongest impact; the building offers multiple views of Alba.




Barcelona Pavillion - Reflecting Pool
Mies van der Rohe



Crown  Hall
Ludwig Mies  van  der  Rohe





Crown  Hall
Ludwig Mies  van  der  Rohe


S. R. Crown Hall, designed by the German-born Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is the home of the College of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois.
Mies was born in Aachen, Germany, on March 27, 1886.
after having trained with his father, a master stonemason.
In 1927 he designed one of his most famous buildings,
the German Pavilion at the international exposition in Barcelona
in 1929.
He moved to the United States in 1937.
from 1938 to 1958 he was head of the Architecture
Department at the Armour Institute of Technology in
Chicago, later renamed the Illinois Institute of Technology.
Crown Hall is regarded as Mies van Der Rohe's masterpiece, and is one of the most architecturally significant buildings of the 20th Century Modernist movement. Crown Hall was completed in 1956 during Mies van der Rohe's tenure as director of IIT's Department of Architecture.
One critic calls it the Parthenon of the 20th Century.




Westmount Square
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Westmount Square is a complex of four buildings located in Westmount, Quebec. Canada. The four buildings, two of which are residential, were designed by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
The complex opened on December 13, 1967. It is connected to Place Alexis Nihon by a tunnel.
Westmount Square's shopping concourse houses boutiques and art galleries, with about one-third of the space reserved for private for-profit health clinics.




Farnsworth House
Mies van der Rohe

The Farnsworth House was designed and constructed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe between 1945-51.
It is a one-room weekend retreat in a once-rural setting, located 55 miles (89 km) southwest of Chicago's downtown on a 60-acre (24 ha) estate site, adjoining the Fox River, south of the city of Plano, Illinois.
The steel and glass house was commissioned by Dr. Edith Farnsworth, a prominent Chicago nephrologist.
Mies created a 1,500-square-foot (140 m2) house that is widely recognized as an iconic masterpiece of International Style of architecture. 
The home was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2006, after joining the National Register of Historic Places in 2004.
The house is currently owned and operated as a house museum by the historic preservation group, National Trust for Historic Preservation.




Farnsworth House
Mies van der Rohe




Farnsworth House
Mies van der Rohe



Farnsworth House - Interior
Mies van der Rohe

for details of the furnishings see the section on 'Furniture'




Philip Johnson House - Interior


Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect.
In 1930, he founded the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and later (1978), as a trustee, he was awarded an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal and the first Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 1979.
He was a student at the Harvard Graduate School of Design.
Johnson died in his sleep while at the Glass House retreat.



Philip Johnson - Glass House - Interior




Philip Johnson - Glass House

The Glass House or Johnson house, built in 1949 in New Canaan, Connecticut, was designed by Philip Johnson as his own residence and is a masterpiece in the use of glass.
It was an important and influential project for Johnson and for modern architecture.
The building is an essay in minimal structure, geometry, proportion, and the effects of transparency and reflection.
The estate includes other buildings designed by Johnson that span his career.
The house is an example of one of the earliest uses of industrial materials like glass and steel in home design.
Johnson lived at the weekend retreat for 58 years.



Philip Johnson - Glass House





Philip Johnson - Museum of Art




Lomax and (Philo) Jacobson - Rosen House - Brentwood




Neue Nationalgalerie
Berlin
Meis van der Rohe

Neue Nationalgalerie at the Kulturforum is a museum for modern art in Berlin, with its main focus on the early 20th century.
It is part of the Nationalgalerie of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.
The museum building and its sculpture gardens were designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and opened in 1968.



 Museum of Modern Literature
Marbach am Neckar - Germany
David Chipperfield


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