GREAT ART - History Painting


History painting is a painting genre defined by subject matter rather than an artistic style, although it is usually realistic in style.
The historical events chosen may be iconographic, not only depicting important events, but ones of particular significance to the painter's society, as for instance, the signing of the declaration of independence in American history painting.
The event, if suitable, does not need to have actually occurred, and artists have frequently taken great liberties with historical facts in order to portray the message desired.
Until recently History Painting was considered the pinnacle of the fine artist - and one to which most artists aspired.







'THE VISIT OF THE QUEEN OF SHEBA TO KING SOLOMAN' - 1890 
Edward Poynter

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A N C I E N T   E G Y P T



'ISRAEL  IN  EGYPT'
Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet, PRA  -  1836-1919)

Edward Poynter was born in Paris, the son of painter and architect Ambrose Poynter and great grandson of sculptor Thomas Banks.
Poynter's family relocated to England while he was still a young child.
He attended the Royal Academy Schools in 1855 where he exhibited from 1861.
It was at the Royal Academy Schools that he met and became close friends with Pre-Raphaelite painter Simeon Solomon.
After leaving the Academy, Poynter traveled to Italy and was introduced to Lord Frederick Leighton who would help start Poynter's life long interest in classical art.





'FUNERAL OF A MUMMY'
Frederick Arthur Bridgman - (1847 - 1928)


Frederick Arthur Bridgman (November 10, 1847 – January 13, 1928) was an American artist known for his paintings of "Orientalist" subjects.
Born in Tuskegee, Alabama, he was the son of a physician. He began as a draughtsman in New York City, for the American Bank Note Company in 1864–1865, and studied art in the same years at the Brooklyn Art Association and at the National Academy of Design. He went to Paris in 1866, and in 1867 he entered the studio of the noted academic painter Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904), where he was deeply influenced by Gérôme's precise draftsmanship, smooth finishes, and concern for Middle-Eastern themes. Thereafter, Paris became his headquarters.
Bridgman made his first trip to North Africa between 1872 and 1874, dividing his time between Algeria and Egypt. There he executed approximately three hundred sketches, which became the source material for several later oil paintings that attracted immediate attention. Bridgman became known as "the American Gérôme", although Bridgman would later adopt a more naturalistic aesthetic, emphasizing bright colors and painterly brushwork. His large and important composition, The Funeral Procession of a Mummy on the Nile, in the Paris Salon (1877), bought by James Gordon Bennett, Jr., brought him the Cross of the Legion of Honor.
Additional visits to the region throughout the 1870s and 1880s allowed him to amass a collection of costumes, architectural pieces, and objets d'art, which often appear in his paintings.





  'THE PROCESSION OF THE SACRED APIS BULL'
Frederick Arthur Bridgman (1847 – 1928)




'CARVERS OF THE SPHINX' - 1935
Wyeth




 'CLEOPATRA ON THE TERRACES OF PHILAE'
Frederick Arthur Bridgman (1847 – 1928)





'DEATH OF CLEOPATRA'
Jean-Andre Rixens - (1846 - 1925)


Jean-André Rixens (1846, Saint-Gaudens) - 21 February 1925, Paris) was a French painter and muralist, notable for his part in the decoration of the Capitole de Toulouse (Salle des Illustres) and of the Hôtel de ville de Paris (Salon des Sciences).



'CLEOPATRA'
J W Waterhouse 



'THEDA BARA as CLEOPATRA I'
Peter Crawford - 2012


(with thanks to Marilyn Monroe)

Theda Bara (July 29, 1885 – April 7, 1955), born Theodosia Burr Goodman, was an American silent film actress – one of the most popular of her era, and one of cinema's earliest sex symbols.
Her femme fatale roles earned her the nickname "The Vamp".
Bara is often cited as the first sex symbol of the movies.
She was well known for wearing very revealing costumes in her films, which could still be considered risqué by today's standards, more than 90 years later.
Such outfits were banned from Hollywood films after the Production Code started in 1930, and then was more strongly enforced in 1934.
Her greatest hit was 'Cleopatra' (1917).
No known prints of 'Cleopatra' exist today, but numerous photographs of Bara in costume as the Queen of the Nile have survived.
She was also called the "Serpent of the Nile", and encouraged Bara to discuss mysticism and the occult in interviews.
Bara died in 1955 in Los Angeles, California, and was interred as Theda Bara Brabin in the 'Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery' in Glendale, California.



'THEDA BARA as CLEOPATRA II'
Peter Crawford - 2012
(with thanks to Marilyn Monroe)




'CLEOPATRA'
Peter Crawford - 2012




'Cleopatra's Return to Egypt'

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2014

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L A W R E N C E   A L M A - T A D A M A



'SELF PORTRAIT'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema  OM, RA (8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was one of the most renowned painters of late nineteenth-century Britain.
Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there.
A classical-subject painter, he became famous for his depictions of the luxury and decadence of the Roman Empire, with languorous figures set in fabulous marbled interiors or against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean sea and sky.
Admired during his lifetime for his draftsmanship and depictions of Classical antiquity, he fell into disrepute after his death, and only since the 1960s has his work been reevaluated for its importance within nineteenth-century English art.



'BACCHANALE'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema



Πυρρίχη  -  'PHYRRIC  DANCE'

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

They are also called the Kurbantes in Phrygia, and Corybants in an older English transcription.
The Kuretes were the nine dancers who venerate Rhea, the Cretan counterpart of Cybele, Mother of the Gods.
A fragment from Strabo, book vii, gives a sense of the roughly analogous character of these male confraternities, and the confusion rampant among those not initiated:
Many assert that the gods worshipped in Samothrace as well as the Kurbantes and the Korybantes and in like manner the Kouretes and the Idaean Daktyls are the same as the Kabeiroi, but as to the Kabeiroi they are unable to tell who they are"
These male dancers in armor, kept time to a drum and the rhythmic stamping of their feet.
Dance, according to Greek thought, was one of the civilizing activities, like wine-making or music.
The dance in armor (the "Pyrrhic dance" or Pyrriche [Πυρρίχη]) was a male coming-of-age initiation ritual linked to a warrior victory celebration.



'A  COIGN  OF  VANTAGE'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)




'THE BATHS OF CARACALLA'  - (Terme di Caracalla)

(detail) - 1899
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)


The Baths of Caracalla in Rome, Italy were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla.
The Caracalla bath complex of buildings was more a leisure centre than just a series of baths. The "baths" were the second to have a public library within the complex. Like other public libraries in Rome, there were two separate and equal sized rooms or buildings; one for Greek language texts and one for Latin language texts.
The baths consisted of a central 55.7 by 24 meter (183x79 ft) frigidarium (cold room) under three 32.9 meter (108 ft) high groin vaults, a double pool tepidarium (medium), and a 35 meter (115 ft) diameter caldarium (hot room), as well as two palaestras (gyms where wrestling and boxing was practiced).
The north end of the bath building contained a natatio or swimming pool - the subject of
 Alma Tedama's painting.
The natatio was roofless with bronze mirrors mounted overhead to direct sunlight into the pool area.
The entire bath building was on a 6 meter (20 ft) high raised platform to allow for storage and furnaces under the building.
The libraries were located in exedrae on the east and west sides of the bath complex.
The entire north wall of the complex was devoted to shops.
The reservoirs on the south wall of the complex were fed with water from the Marcian Aqueduct.




'THE SCULPTURE GALLERY' - 1874
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)






'PHIDIAS SHOWING THE PARTHENON FRIEZE TO HIS FRIENDS - 1868
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)


Phidias or Pheidias  (circa 480 BC – 430 BC), was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, who lived in the 5th century BC, and is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece.
Phidias' Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon and the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze statue of Athena which stood between it and the Propylaea,
a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens.
Phidias was the son of a certain Charmides of Athens.
The Golden Ratio has been represented by the Greek letter  (phi), after Phidias, who is said to have employed it. The Golden Ratio is an irrational number approximating 1.6180 which when studied has special mathematical properties.
The golden spiral is also said to hold aesthetic values - see associated website 'Elements of Design' 







'THE FLUTE PLAYER'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)





'GREEK WINE'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)







'SIESTA'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)



'XANTHE and PHAON' - 1884
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)



'GRATUS PROCLAIMS CLAUDIUS EMPEROR'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)




'THE COLOSSEUM'
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadama - (1836-1912)


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F R E D E R I C    L E I G H T O N




'IDYLL'
Frederic Lord Leighton - (1830 - 1896)



'VESTAL'
Frederic Lord Leighton - (1830 - 1896)



'IN  THE  TEPIDARIUM'
Frederic Lord Leighton - (1830 - 1896)


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S L A V E R Y




'LE  MARCHÉ  AUX  ESCLAVES'
Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger (1824-1888)


Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger (1824-88) was a French figure painter.
He was born at Paris, studied with Delaroche and Jollivet, and in 1849 took the Prix de Rome. His paintings are prime examples of academic art of the time, particularly history painting. They include a "Moorish Cafe" (1848), "Cæsar at the Rubicon" (1865), the "Promenade in the Street of Tombs, Pompeii" (1869), and "The Slave Market" (1888).
The recipient of many medals, he became a member of the Institut de France in 1882.





'CAPTIVES  IN  ROME' - (detail)
Charles W. Bartlett - (1860 - 1940)


Charles William Bartlett (born 1 June 1860 in Bridport, Dorset) was an English painter and printmaker.
He studied metallurgy and worked in that field for several years. At age 23, he enrolled in the Royal Academy in London, where he studied painting and etching. After three years of study in London, he entered the private studio school Académie Julian in Paris, where he studied under Jules Joseph Lefebvre (1836–1911) and Gustave Boulanger (1824–1888).
The Bradford Museums and Galleries (West Yorkshire, UK), the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery (Bristol, England), the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Honolulu Academy of Arts, and the Library of Congress (Washington, D. C.) are among the public collections holding work by Charles W. Bartlett.





 'LOCUSTA TESTING POISON ON A SLAV
Joseph-Noel Sylvestre

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H E N R Y K   S I E M I R A D Z K I



'DIRCE'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)

Henryk Siemiradzki (15 November 1843 – 23 August 1902) was a Polish Academic painter.
He was particularly known for his depictions of scenes from the ancient Graeco-Roman world and the New Testament.
Siemiradzki was born to a Polish szlachta family of a military physician in the village of Novobelgorod (now Pechenegi) near Kharkiv, Ukraine.
He studied at Kharkiv Gymnasium where he learned painting under a scion of Karl Briullov, D. I. Besperchy. He entered the Physics-Mathematics School of Kharkov University but continued his painting lessons from Bespechy.
After graduating from the University with the degree of Kandidat he abandoned his scientific career and moved to Saint Petersburg to study painting at the Imperial Academy of Arts in the years 1864-1870. Upon his graduation he was awarded a gold medal.
In 1870-1871 he studied under Karl von Piloty in Munich on a grant from the Academy.
In 1871 he moved to Rome, while spending summers at his estate in Strzalkowo, near Czestochowa in Poland.
In 1873 he received the title of an Academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts for his painting Christ and a Sinner, based on a verse by Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy.
In 1876-1879 Siemiradzki worked on frescoes for the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Moscow).
In 1879 he offered one of his best-known works, the enormous Pochodnie Nerona (Nero's torches), painted 1876, to the fledgeling Polish National Museum in Kraków.
In 1893 he worked on two large paintings for the State Historical Museum (Moscow).
His works are exhibited in the museums of Poland, Russia and Ukraine.
He died in Strzalkowo in 1902. Originally he was buried in Warsaw but later his remains were moved to the national Pantheone on Skalka in Kraków.



'THE  TORCHES  OF  NERO'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)



'BY EXAMPLE OF THE GODS'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)

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I N   T H E   A R E N A




'NUDE  GLADIATOR'
Jean-Germain Drouais


Jean Germain Drouais (November 25, 1763 – July 15, 1788), French historical painter, was born at Paris. His father, Francois Hubert Drouais, and his grandfather, Hubert Drouais, were well-known portrait painters; and it was from his father that he received his first artistic instruction.
In 1780 Jacques-Louis David, who had just returned from Rome, opened a school of painting in Paris, and Drouais was one of his earliest and most promising pupils. He adopted the classical style of his master, giving his days to study painting and spending a great part of every night in designing.
In 1783 he was admitted to compete for the great prize of painting offered by the Academy, the subject being the Widow of Nain. After inspecting the works of his fellow-competitors, however, he lost hope and destroyed his own canvas, but was consoled by the assurance of his master David that he had not done badly, and would have won the prize. This was further revealed by the fact that no first prize was awarded in 1783 after his work was withdrawn.
The next year he was triumphantly successful, the Woman of Canaan at the Feet of Christ, with which he gained the prize, being compared by competent critics with the works of Poussin.
His success making him only the more eager to perfect himself in his art, he accompanied David to Rome, where he worked even more assiduously than in Paris.
He was most strongly influenced by the remains of ancient art and by the works of Raphael. 
The last picture which he completed was his Philoctetus on the Island of Lemnos.
Following his death, a monument to his memory was erected by his fellow-students in the church of Santa Maria in the Via Lata.



© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

 'Impavidus is Speared'
Vittorio Carvelli




'DEATH OF A GLADIATOR'
Jean-Simon Berthélemy -  (1743–1811)

Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743–1811) was a French history painter who was commissioned to paint allegorical ceilings for the Palais du Louvre, the Luxembourg Palace and others, in a conservative Late Baroque-Rococo manner only somewhat affected by Neoclassicism.
Berthélemy was born in Laon, Aisne, the son of a sculptor, Jean-Joseph Berthélemy.
He trained in the atelier of Noel Hallé, a professor at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture and made his first reputation in the 1760s; after reaching second place in 1763, he won the Prix de Rome of the Académie in 1767.
An early commission was for a suite of decorative paintings under the direction of the architect Jean-Gabriel Legendre for the Hôtel de l'Intendance de Champagne at Châlons-sur-Marne, of which the artist only completed six overdoors, much in the manner of François Boucher and delegated the rest of the commission to a fellow pupil at the Académie.
Berthélemy was an esteemed painter in his day, chosen to join the entourage accompanying Napoleon's campaign in Italy, where he was among the experts assigned the task of selecting works of art to be transferred to Paris under terms of the Treaty of Tolentino, February 1797. He died in Paris in 1811.
His undoubted masterpiece is superb male nude, 'Death of a Gladiator' - (see above).





'ROMAN  GLADIATOR'
Vitorrio  Carvelli




'THE  GLADIATOR'S  REWARD'
Vitorrio  Carvelli






'THE SPOLIARIUM'
Juan Luna

The Spoliarium  is a painting by Filipino artist Juan Luna.
The painting was submitted by Luna to the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884, where it garnered a gold medal.
In 1886, it was sold to the Diputación Provincial de Barcelona for 20,000 pesetas.
It currently hangs in the main gallery at the ground floor of the National Museum of the Philippines, and is the first work of art that greets visitors upon entry into the museum.
The Spoliarium was a chamber beneath the Roman arena, where bodies of dead gladiators, and other dead bodies, were dragged and later stripped of armour and clothing and disposed of by the Roman Arena officials.

© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'PANCRATIUM WRESTLERS'
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see
 © Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

BOY PANCRATIUM WRESTLERS
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see
 © Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'Arena Execution'
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see
 © Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'PANCRATIUM WRESTLERS'
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see

© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'Marcus and Petronius in the Spoliarium with the body of Atticus'
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see


© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'Atticus - Teenage Gladiator'
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see



© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'ROMAN GLADIATOR CHECKS HIS BLADE BEFORE HIS FIGHT'
Vittorio Carvelli


© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'A Roman Pompa'
Vittorio Carvelli

for the full story see
The Story of Gracchus - Chapter XXIII



© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'Rape of Ganymede'
(A Mythological Re-enactment in the Arena)

for the full story see
The Story of Gracchus - Chapter xV
'Dies in Ludi'



© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'The Editor's Box'

for the full story see
The Story of Gracchus - Chapter xV
'Dies in Ludi'


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A N C I E N T   G R E E C E


'YOUNG SPARTANS EXERCISING'
Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas

Plutarch writes of Lycurgus, the legislator of ancient Sparta, ordering Spartan girls to engage in wrestling contests; here they urge the boys to fight.
An early work, probably begun about 1860.
The painting was reworked several times, and numerous related drawings and studies survive, for example a study in oils in the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Although listed in the catalogue for the 1880 Impressionist exhibition, it was not shown and remained in the artist's studio until his death.



'GRECIAN GIRL'
Godward 





'IN THE DAYS OF SAPPHO'
Godward 





'GREEK WRESTLERS IN THE ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES'
Tom Lovell

Greek wrestling, also known as Ancient Greek wrestling and πάλη, was the most popular organized sport in Ancient Greece.
A point was scored when one player touched the ground with his back, hip, shoulder, or tapped out due to a submission-hold or was forced out of the wrestling-area.
Three points had to be scored to win the match.
One particularly important position in this form of wrestling was one where one of the contestants was lying on his belly with the other on his back trying to strangle him.
The athlete on the bottom would try to grasp an arm of the one on top and turn him over onto his back while the athlete on top would try to complete the choke without being rolled.
Wrestling was the first competition to be added to the Olympic Games that was not a footrace.
It was added in 700 B.C. (Miller, 46).
During the competitions, the competitions were elimination tournament format until one wrestler could be crowned the victor.
This event was also part of the pentathlon.
Wrestling was regarded as the best expression of strength out of all of the competitions and was represented in Greek mythology by Herakles.
Greek wrestlers always competed naked.




A N C I E N T   R O M E




'THE DECADENCE OF THE ROMANS' - 1847 
Thomas Couture 








 'THE DEATH OF CAESAR'
Max Klinger


The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by approximately forty Roman senators who called themselvesLiberators.
Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in the Theatre of Pompey on theIdes of March (March 15) 44 BC.
Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic at the time, having recently been declared dictator perpetuoby the Senate.
This declaration made several senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favour of tyranny.
The ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators' civil war and, ultimately, to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.

Max Klinger (February 18, 1857 – July 5, 1920) was a German Symbolist painter, sculptor, printmaker, and writer.
Klinger was born in Leipzig and studied in Karlsruhe.
An admirer of the etchings of Menzel and Goya, he shortly became a skilled and imaginative engraver in his own right.
He began creating sculptures in the early 1880s.
From 1883-1893 he lived in Rome, and became increasingly influenced by the Italian Renaissance and antiquity.


© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'Caesar's Comet'


for the full story, and many more images, go to:





'THE  PATRICIAN  SIESTA'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)


Henryk Siemiradzki (15 November 1843 – 23 August 1902) was a Polish Academic painter.
He was particularly known for his depictions of scenes from the ancient Graeco-Roman world and the New Testament.
Siemiradzki was born to a Polish szlachta family of a military physician in the village of Novobelgorod (now Pechenegi) near Kharkiv, Ukraine.
He studied at Kharkiv Gymnasium where he learned painting under a scion of Karl Briullov, D. I. Besperchy. He entered the Physics-Mathematics School of Kharkov University but continued his painting lessons from Bespechy.
After graduating from the University with the degree of Kandidat he abandoned his scientific career and moved to Saint Petersburg to study painting at the Imperial Academy of Arts in the years 1864-1870. Upon his graduation he was awarded a gold medal.
In 1870-1871 he studied under Karl von Piloty in Munich on a grant from the Academy.
In 1871 he moved to Rome, while spending summers at his estate in Strzalkowo, near Czestochowa in Poland.
In 1873 he received the title of an Academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts for his painting Christ and a Sinner, based on a verse by Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy.
In 1876-1879 Siemiradzki worked on frescoes for the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Moscow).
In 1879 he offered one of his best-known works, the enormous Pochodnie Nerona (Nero's torches), painted 1876, to the fledgeling Polish National Museum in Kraków.
In 1893 he worked on two large paintings for the State Historical Museum (Moscow).
His works are exhibited in the museums of Poland, Russia and Ukraine.
He died in Strzalkowo in 1902. Originally he was buried in Warsaw but later his remains were moved to the national Pantheone on Skalka in Kraków.


© Copyright Vittorio Carvelli 2016

'Priest of Apollo'

for the full story, and many more images, go to:



'BY  A  SPRING'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)



'THE  TORCHES  OF  NERO'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)





'THE DEATH OF NERO'
for more information see:
'The Story of Gracchus'



'DIRCE'
Henryk Siemiradzki (1843 - 1902)



'DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  TEMPLE  OF  JERUSALEM'
Francesco Hayez

Hayez came from a relatively poor family from Venice.
His father was of French origin while his mother, Chiara Torcella, was from Murano. From childhood he showed a predisposition for drawing, so his uncle apprenticed him to an art restorer.
Later he became a student of the painter Francisco Magiotto with whom he continued his studies for three years.
He was admitted to the painting course of the New Academy of Fine Arts in 1806, where he studied under Teodoro Matteini.
In 1809 he won a competition from the Academy of Venice for one year of study at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome.
He remained in Rome until 1814, then moved to Naples where he was commissioned by Joachim Murat to paint a major work depicting Ulysses at the court of Alcinous.
In the mid 1830s he attended the "Salotto Maffei" salon in Milan, hosted by Clara Maffei (whose portrait Hayez painted for her husband), and he was still in Milan in 1850 when he was appointed director of the Academy of Brera there.
His early works show the influence of Ingres and the Nazarene movement. His later work participates in the Classical revival.





'DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  TEMPLE  OF  JERUSALEM'  -  (Detail)
Francesco Hayez

The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War.
It was followed by the fall of Masada in 73 CE.
The Roman army, led by the future Emperor Titus, with Tiberius Julius Alexander as his second-in-command, besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been occupied by its Jewish defenders in 66 CE.
The city and its famous Second Temple were destroyed in 70 CE.
The destruction of the temples (both first and second) is still mourned annually as the Jewish fast Tisha B'Av.
The Arch of Titus, depicting and celebrating the Roman sack of Jerusalem and the Temple, still stands in Rome.





'THE  SACK  OF  ROME'  -  (1890)
Joseph Noel Sylvestre

He was born in Béziers in South-West France on 24 June 1847, training as an artist first in Toulouse under Thomas Couture, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Alexandre Cabanel.
He was an exponent of the romantic Academic art style, also known as art pompier (fireman's art), examples of which are the Death of Seneca (1875), The Gaul Ducar decapitates the Roman general Flaminus at the Battle of Trasimene (1882), The Sack of Rome by the barbarians in 410 (1890) and François Rude working on the Arc de Triomphe (1893).



'THE VILLA AT SARNUS'
Alexander Rothaug

The Sarno, known as Sarnus to the Romans, is a stream that passes through Pompeii to the south of the Italian city of Naples.
It flows about 24 km from Mt. Sarno to Naples.


for more information and images about Classical History go to


© Copyright Peter Crawford 2016


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click here for 'Modern History Painting'








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