GREAT ART - Orientalism

Gabriel Raya Morcillo

Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat (1833 – 1922)

Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat (June 20, 1833 – September 8, 1922) was a French painter.
He was born in Bayonne, but from 1846 to 1853 he lived in Madrid.
In Madrid he received his artistic training under Madrazo.
He later worked in Paris, where he became known as a leading portraitist, never without a commission.
His many portraits show the influence of Velázquez, Jusepe de Ribera and other Spanish masters, as well as Titian and Van Dyke, whose works he studied in the Prado.
Following the period in Spain Bonnat worked the ateliers of the history painters Paul Delaroche and Leon Cogniet (1854) in Paris.
Despite repeated attempts, he failed to win the prix de Rome, finally receiving only a second prize. However, a scholarship from his native Bayonne allowed him to spend three years in Rome (1858–60) independently. During his stay in Rome, he became friends with Edgar Degas, Gustave Moreau, Jean-Jacques Henner and the sculptor Henri Chapu.
He won a medal of honor in Paris in 1869, going on to become one of the leading artists of his day.
Bonnat went on to win the Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur and became a professor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1882.
In May 1905 he succeeded Paul Dubois as director of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Bonnat "was a liberal teacher who stressed simplicity in art above high academic finish, as well as overall effect rather than detail," explains Julius Kaplan (see References).
Bonnat's emphasis on overall effect on the one hand, and rigorous drawing on the other, put him in a middle position with respect to the Impressionists and academic painters like his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme.

Antonio Maria Fabrés y Costa
 - (1854–1936)

Antonio Fabrés was a famous Spanish artist during the turn of the 20th century.
He was born in Barcelona Spain in 1854.
He started studying at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in his native city at the age of 13. When he turned 21, he received a grant to study in Rome.
There are records of his sculptures from early in his career but later on he became a painter almost exclusively.
He joined Mariano Fortuny with a group that became known for their intense realism. Their popularity grew with the taste of the bourgeoisie seeking exotic images with oriental of medieval themes.
He went back to Barcelona in 1886 and in 1894 he moved to Paris.
The popularity he had earned during his decade in Italy helped him open a large studio where he could create complex scenes for the upper classes.
In 1902 the Academia de San Carlos decided to renovate their classical techniques with the ones of realism that were so popular in Europe at the time.
Antonio Fabrés was called to take the place of Santiago Rebull as head of this important institution.
Although some of his students went on to become what was later known as the Post-Revolutionary Movement in Mexican art, the faculty had a hard time adapting to his distinct style and personality.
In 1907, he returned to Rome. One of his last commissions in Mexico was the decorations of a hall at the Porfirio Diaz mansion where he mainly focused on art nouveau style .
Fabrés was recognized most everywhere he traveled. He was acclaimed in Barcelona, London, Paris, Vienna and Lyon.
At the end of his life he was dealt a very unfortunate blow when in 1926 he decided to donate a large amount of works to the Museo de Bellas Artes de Barcelona. In exchange for this generous donation he asked the Museum that a hall be built with his name, but the museum never built that hall and although he protested several times, they could never settle the argument.
Antonio Fabrés died in Rome in 1938.

Antonio Maria Fabrés y Costa
 - (1854–1936)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme (11 May 1824 – 10 January 1904) was a French painter and sculptor in the style now known as Academicism.
The range of his oeuvre included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism, portraits and other subjects, bringing the Academic painting tradition to an artistic climax.
Jean-Léon Gérôme was born at Vesoul (Haute-Saône).
He went to Paris in 1840 where he studied under Paul Delaroche, whom he accompanied to Italy (1843–1844).He visited Florence, Rome, the Vatican and Pompeii.
In 1852 Gérôme received a commission by Alfred Emilien Comte de Nieuwerkerke, Surintendant des Beaux-Arts to the court of Napoleon III, for the painting of a large historical canvas, the Age of Augustus.
Thanks to a considerable down payment, he was able to travel in 1853 to Constantinople, together with the actor Edmond Got.
This would be the first of several travels to the East : in 1854 he made another journey to Turkey.
Gérôme was elected a member of the Institut de France in 1865.
Already a knight in the Légion d'honneur, he was promoted to an officer in 1867.
In 1869 he was elected an honorary member of the British Royal Academy.
His fame had become such that he was invited, along with the most eminent French artists, to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
Jean-Léon Gérôme died in his atelier on 10 January 1904. He was found in front of a portrait of Rembrandt and close to his own painting "The Truth". At his own request, he was given a simple burial service without flowers. But the Requiem Mass given in his memory was attended by a former president of the Republic, most prominent politicians, and many painters and writers. He was buried in the Montmartre Cemetery.

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

'THE  GRIEF  OF  THE  PASHA'  -  (1882)
Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Leon Francois Comerre - (1850 – 1916)

Léon François Comerre (10 Oct 1850 – 1916) was a French academic painter, famous for his portraits of beautiful women.
Comerre was born in Trélon, in the Département du Nord, the son of a schoolteacher. He moved to Lille with his family in 1853.
From an early age he showed an interest in art and became a student of Alphonse Colas at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lille, winning a gold medal in 1867.
From 1868 a grant from the Département du Nord allowed him to continue his studies in Paris at the famous Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Alexandre Cabanel. There he came under the influence of orientalism.
Comerre first exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1871 going on to win prizes there in 1875 and 1881. In 1875 he won the Grand Prix de Rome for his painting "L’Ange annonçant aux bergers la naissance du Christ" (The Angel announcing the birth of Christ to the shepherds).
This led to a scholarship at the French Academy in Rome from January 1876 to December 1879. In 1885 he won a prize at the "Exposition Universelle" in Antwerp. He also won prestigious art prizes in the USA (1876) and Australia (1881 and 1897). He became a Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1903.
"L' Étoile" is considered as the most important work of Leon Comerre by his daughter, Madam J. Maillart - Norbert (George Comerre). It graces the cover of her book and catalogue raisonné of Comerre work "LEON COMERRE", published in 1980 by Les Presses Artistiques, Paris. 
He exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, and in Glasgow at the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts.
In 1884, he moved to Vésinet, a suburb of Paris, where he remained until his death in 1916.

'CHOOSING  THE  FAVOURITE' -  (Detail)  -  (1880)
Giulio Rosati

Giulio Rosati (Rome 1857 - Rome 1917) was an Italian painter specialized in orientalist and academic scenes. He studied at the Accademia di San Luca under Dario Querci and Francesco Podesti.
His son, Alberto Rosati (1893-1971), was also an orientalist painter.

Giulio Rosati

Rosati Giulio 

Adolphe Yvon (1817–1893)

Adolphe Yvon (1817–1893) was a French painter known for his paintings from the Napoleonic Wars.
Yvon studied under Paul Delaroche, rose to fame during the Second Empire, then finished his career as a teacher.
Shortly after the end of the Crimean War in September 1855, Yvon was commissioned by the French government to paint a large picture of the capture of the Malakoff at Sevastopol.
In the succeeding years, Emperor Napoleon III began to admire his battle scenes; naturally he glorified the carnage of Napoleon I’s campaigns. Yvon became an officer of the Légion d’Honneur in 1867, and painted Napoleon III’s portrait the following year (unlocated).
Yvon was known as the leading teacher of drawing at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1863–83). 

Jean-Léon Gérôme


Jean-Léon Gérôme - (1824 - 1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme - (1824 - 1904)

Albert Aublet

One of the most successful graduates of the studios of Jacquand and J.L. Gerome, Albert Aublet, was a Parisian by birth. He received his first Salon medal in 1880, and won steadily increasing popularity, chiefly by pictures of a graceful decorative character, remarkable for beauty of form and tender purity of color.
Albert Aublet was a Parisian, a pupil of Jacquand and of Gerome, and made the regular course of a student at the School of Fine Arts.
A visit to Constantinople next added subjects of Oriental life to his repertory, and led to the completion, among others, of his "Turkish Woman at the Bath," whose appearance at the Salon in 1883 was received with great applause and materially added to his fame and prosperity.

(The Nude Snake Charmer)
Paul Desire Trouillebert (1829 - 1900)

Paul Desiré Trouillebert was a famous French Barbizon School painter in the mid-nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries.
He was born in Paris, France in 1829 and died there on June 28, 1900.
Paul is considered a portrait, and a genre and landscape painter from the French Barbizon School.
He was a student of Ernest Hébert (1817–1908) and Charles-François Jalabert (1819–1901), and made his debut at the Salon of 1865, exhibiting a portrait.
At the Paris Salon of 1869,Trouillebert exhibited “Au bois Rossignolet”, which was a lyrical Fontainebleau landscape that received great critical acclaim.
He was interested in the orientalism and produced paintings of nudes

Edwin Lord Weeks (1849–1903)

Edwin Lord Weeks (1849 – 1903), American artist, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1849.
He was a pupil of Léon Bonnat and of Jean-Léon Gérôme, at Paris. He made many voyages to the East, and was distinguished as a painter of oriental scenes.
Weeks' parents were affluent spice and tea merchants from Newton, a suburb of Boston and as such they were able to accept, probably encourage, and certainly finance their son's youthful interest in painting and travelling.
As a young man Edwin Lord Weeks visited the Florida Keys to draw and also travelled to Surinam in South America.
His earliest known paintings date from 1867 when Edwin Lord Weeks was eighteen years old, although it is not until his 'Landscape with Blue Heron', dated 1871 and painted in the Everglades, that Edwin Lord Weeks started to exhibit a dexterity of technique and eye for composition - presumably having taken professional tuition.
In 1895 he wrote and illustrated a book of travels, 'From the Black Sea through Persia and India', and two years later he published 'Episodes of Mountaineering'.
He died in November 1903.
He was a member of the Légion d'honneur, France, an officer of the Order of St. Michael, Germany, and a member of the Secession, Munich.

'TAJ MAHAL' - 1883
Edwin Lord Weeks - (1849-1903)

Horace Vernet 

Émile Jean-Horace Vernet (30 June 1789 - 17 January 1863) was a French painter of battles, portraits, and Orientalist Arab subjects.
Vernet was born to Carle Vernet, another famous painter, who was himself a son of Claude Joseph Vernet.
Fittingly, he was born in the Paris Louvre, while his parents were staying there during the French Revolution.
Vernet quickly developed a disdain for the high-minded seriousness of academic French art influenced by Classicism, and decided to paint subjects taken mostly from contemporary culture.
Therefore, he began depicting the French soldier in a more familiar, vernacular manner rather than in an idealized, Davidian fashion.
He gained recognition during the Bourbon Restoration for a series of battle paintings commissioned by the duc d'Orleans, the future King Louis-Philippe.
Critics marveled at the incredible speed with which he painted.
Over the course of his long career, Horace Vernet was honored with dozens of important commissions. King Louis-Philippe was one of his most prolific patrons.
His depictions of Algerian battles, were well-received, as they were vivid depictions of the French army in the heat of battle.
After the fall of the July Monarchy during the Revolution of 1848, Vernet discovered a new patron in Napoléon III of France.
He continued to paint representations of the heroic French army during the Second Empire and maintained his commitment to representing war in an accessible and realistic way. 
Vernet died in his hometown of Paris in 1863.

Gustav Bauernfeind

Gustav Bauernfeind

Robert Swain Gifford

Robert Swain Gifford (December 23, 1840 - January 13, 1905) was an American landscape painter. He was influenced by the Barbizon school.
Much of his work focuses on the landscapes of New England, where he was born. He, along with Victorian contemporaries from the White Mountain and Hudson River Schools, helped immortalize the majestic cliffs of Grand Manan in the Bay of Fundy. His painting from the island, "Pettes Cove," is illustrative of his masterful marine work.
In the 1870s, he undertook several journeys to Europe and the Middle East and painted some subjects from those regions. In 1899, he was an artist on the famous Harriman Alaska Expedition.
Some of his works hang in the most prominent galleries in the USA, including the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington DC. He was a member of the Society of American Artists.

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)

Jean-Léon Gérôme  -  (1824-1904)


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