GREAT ART - Symbolism

'Wien Träumende'

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Symbolism began as a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
In literature, the style had its beginnings with the publication Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire. 
The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and '70s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers.
The name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the symbolists from the related decadents of literature and of art.
Symbolism in literature is distinct from symbolism in art although the two were similar in many respects.
The symbolism of art is often associated with the 'Gothic' component of Romanticism.
In painting, symbolism can be seen as a revival of some mystical tendencies in the Romantic tradition, and was close to the self-consciously morbid and private decadent movement.
There were several rather dissimilar groups of Symbolist painters and visual artists, which included Gustave Moreau, Gustav Klimt, Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Odilon Redon, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Fantin-Latour, Gaston Bussière, Edvard Munch, and others.
Symbolism in painting was even more widespread geographically than symbolism in poetry.
Auguste Rodin is sometimes considered a symbolist sculptor.
Among English-speaking artists, the closest counterpart to symbolism was aestheticism.
The pre-Raphaelites were contemporaries of the earlier symbolists, and have much in common with them. 
The symbolist painters used mythological and dream imagery, and later Symbolists were much influenced by Sigmund Freud.
The symbols used by symbolism are not the familiar emblems of mainstream iconography but intensely personal, private, obscure and ambiguous references.
More a philosophy than an actual style of art, symbolism in painting influenced the contemporary Art Nouveau style and Surrealism.

 'Ossian Welcomes the Naspoleonic Heros into Valhalla'
Anne-Louis Girodet Trioson

Anne-Louis Girodet (also given as Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy-Triosson, Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson) (January 5, 1767 – December 9, 1824), was a French painter and pupil of Jacques-Louis David, who was part of the beginning of the Romantic movement by adding elements of eroticism through his paintings. Girodet is remembered for his precise and clear style and for his paintings of members of the Napoleonic family.
His later work can be seen as a precursor of Symbolism.

 'Der Große Morgen'
Philipp Otto Runge
Philipp Otto Runge (23 July 1777 – 2 December 1810) was a Romantic and Symbolist German painter and draughtsman. He made a late start to his career and died young, nonetheless he is considered among the best German Romantic painters.

'Abundantia - The Gifts of the Sea'
Hans Makart
Hans Makart (28 May 1840 – 3 October 1884) was a 19th-century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.

'Abundantia - The Gifts of the Earth'
Hans Makart

'Die wilde jagd'
Franz von Stuck

Franz Ritter von Stuck (February 23, 1863 – August 30, 1928), born Franz Stuck and ennobled in 1906, was a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.
Stuck was born at Tettenweis, in Bavaria. From an early age he displayed an affinity for drawing and caricature. To begin his artistic education he relocated in 1878 to Munich, where he would settle for life. From 1881 to 1885 Stuck attended the Munich Academy.
He first became well known by cartoons for 'Fliegende Blätte'r, and vignette designs for programmes and book decoration. In 1889 he exhibited his first paintings at the Munich Glass Palace, winning a gold medal for 'The Guardian of Paradise'.
In 1892 Stuck co-founded the Munich Secession, and also executed his first sculpture, Athlete. In 1895 he began teaching painting at the Munich Academy.

Franz von Stuck

Hommage an Malerei
Franz von Stuck

'Die Toteninsel'
Arnold Böcklin
'Die Toteninsel' is the best-known painting of Swiss Symbolist artist Arnold Böcklin (1827–1901). Prints of the work were very popular in central Europe in the early 20th century - Vladimir Nabokov observed in his novel Despair that they were to be "found in every Berlin home."
Böcklin produced several different versions of the mysterious painting between 1880 and 1886.
The third version was painted in 1883 for Böcklin’s dealer Fritz Gurlitt. In 1933, this version was put up for sale, and a noted Böcklin admirer, Adolf Hitler, acquired it.
He hung it first at the Berghof in Obersalzberg and, then after 1940, in the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin. It is now at the Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

Arnold Böcklin

'Odysseus und die Sirenen'
Otto Greiner
Otto Greiner (16 December 1869 in Leipzig – 24 September 1916 in Munich) was a German symbolist painter and graphic artist.

'Male Nude Study'
Otto Greiner

'Herkules bei Omphale'
Otto Greiner

'Schicksal' - 1917
Ludwig Fahrenkrog
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (20 October 1867 – 27 October 1952) was a German writer, playwright and artist. He was born in Rendsburg, Prussia, in 1867.
He started his career as an artist in his youth, and attended the Berlin Royal Art Academy before being appointed a professor in 1913.
He taught at the School of Arts and Crafts in Bremen from 1898 to 1931.
He was also involved in the founding of a series of folkish religious groups in the early 20th century, as part of a movement to create what its adherents referred to as a "Germanic religious community".

'Meer Götter in der Brandung'
(Sea Gods in the Surf)
Max Klinger
Max Klinger (18 February 1857 – 5 July 1920) was a German Symbolist painter, sculptor, printmaker, and writer.
Klinger was born in Leipzig and studied in Karlsruhe.
An admirer of the etchings of Menzel and Goya, he shortly became a skilled and imaginative engraver in his own right. He began creating sculptures in the early 1880s.
From 1883–1893 he lived in Rome, and became increasingly influenced by the Italian Renaissance and antiquity.

'Hygeia' - Allegorie der Medizin
Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d'art. Klimt's primary subject was the female body; his works are marked by a frank eroticism.
n 1894, Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna. Not completed until the turn of the century, his three paintings, Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence were criticized for their radical themes and material, and were described as "pornographic". Klimt had transformed traditional allegory and symbolism into a new language that was more overtly sexual and hence more disturbing to some. The public outcry came from all quarters—political, aesthetic and religious. As a result, the paintings were not displayed on the ceiling of the Great Hall. This would be the last public commission accepted by the artist.

Pallas Athene
Gustav Klimpt

Alexander Rothaug 
Alexander Rothaug (March 13 1870 in Vienna - 5 March 1946 ibid; Complete name: Alexander Theodor Rothaug) was an Austrian painter and illustrator.
1933 Alexander Rothaug published under the title "statics and dynamics of the human body" in the form of a loose-leaf collection of 10 sheets of a systematization of the human body in terms of a theory of proportion . He also wrote a 38-page treatise entitled "The knowledge in the painting" with the tripartite Appendix "thoughts about the art and the artist."

Alexander Rothaug 

'Adam i Paradis'
 Kristian Zahrtmann
Peder Henrik Kristian Zahrtmann, known as Kristian Zahrtmann, (31 March 1843 - 22 June 1917) was a Danish painter. He was a part of the Danish artistic generation in the late 19th century, along with Peder Severin Krøyer and Theodor Esbern Philipsen, who broke away from both the strictures of traditional Academicism and the heritage of the Golden Age of Danish Painting, in favor of naturalism and symbolism.

'Œdipe et le Sphinx'
Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau (6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a French Symbolist painter whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures. As a painter, Moreau appealed to the imaginations of some Symbolist writers and artists.
'Œdipe et le Sphinx', one of his first symbolist paintings, was exhibited at the Salon of 1864. Moreau quickly gained a reputation for eccentricity. One commentator said Moreau's work was "like a pastiche of Mantegna created by a German student who relaxes from his painting by reading Schopenhauer". The painting currently resides in the permanent collection at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

'Dance of the Cymbalists'
Lord Frederic Leighton
Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton PRA (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical, biblical and classical subject matter. Leighton was bearer of the shortest-lived peerage in history; after only one day his hereditary peerage ended with his death.

'Study of Figures'
Jean Baptiste Mauzaisse
Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse (November 1784–1844) was a French painter and lithographer.
Born in Corbeil, he began studying at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1803.
His first painting, L'Arabe pleurant son coursier ('The Arab Mourning his Steed'), won him a first class medal at the exhibition at the Salon in 1812. In 1822, he was commissioned to decorate several ceilings in the Louvre.

'La estrella doble'
Luis Ricardo Falero

Luis Ricardo Falero (1851 – December 7, 1896), Duke of Labranzano, was a Spanish painter. He specialized in female nudes and mythological, oriental and fantasy settings.
Most of his paintings contained at least one nude or topless female.
His most common medium was oil on canvas.
Falero had a particular interest in astronomy and incorporated celestial constellations into many of his works, such as 'El matrimonio de un cometa' and 'La estrella doble'.
His interest and knowledge of astronomy also led him to illustrate the works of Camille Flammarion.

'Apotheose der Slawen' - 'Zbožnění Slovanů'
'Slovanská epopej'
Alfons Maria Mucha
Alfons Maria Mucha (24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), often known in English and French as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech Art Nouveau and Symbolist painter and decorative artist, known best for his distinct style. He produced many paintings, illustrations, advertisements, postcards, and designs.
Mucha spent many years working on what he considered his life's fine art masterpiece, the symbolist 'Slovanská epopej', a series of twenty huge paintings depicting the history of the Czech and the Slavic people in general, bestowed to the city of Prague in 1928.
He had wanted to complete a series such as this, a celebration of Slavic history, since he was young.
From 1963 until 2012 the series was on display in the chateau in Moravský Krumlov in the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic.
Since 2012 the series has been on display at the National Gallery's Veletržní Palace.
Among his many other accomplishments, Mucha was also the restorer of Czech Freemasonry.

'Der Heilige Berg Athos' - 'Svatá hora Athos'
'Slovanská epopej'
Alfons Maria Mucha

Giulio Aristide Sartorio
Fresco from the Sala della Camera dei Deputati - Roma
Giulio Aristide Sartorio (February 11, 1860 - October 3, 1932) was an Italian painter and film director from Rome.
Having attended the Rome Institute of Fine Arts, Sartorio presented a Symbolist work at the 1883 International Exposition of Rome. He formed friendships with Nino Costa and Gabriele D’Annunzio. He won a gold medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1889 and met the Pre-Raphaelites in England in 1893. His participation in the Venice Biennale began in 1895 with the 1st International Exposition of Art of Venice, after which he taught at the Weimar Academy of Fine Arts from 1896 to 1898.
His period of greatest renown came at the beginning of the century, when he produced decorative friezes for the 5th Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte of Venice (1903), the Mostra Nazionale of Fine Arts (Milan, Parco Sempione, 1906) and Palazzo Montecitorio in Rome (1908–12). Wounded during World War I, he travelled extensively in the Middle East, Japan and Latin America during the 1920s and became a member of the Italian Royal Academy.

Giulio Aristide Sartorio
Fresco from the Sala della Camera dei Deputati - Roma

Giulio Aristide Sartorio
Fresco from the Sala della Camera dei Deputati - Roma

Giulio Aristide Sartorio
Fresco from the Sala della Camera dei Deputati - Roma

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